For this reason, along with the generally low quality of oil available, very frequent oil changes were required. The first oil filters were simple, generally consisting of a screen placed at the oil pump intake.
Patent for an automotive oil filter and called it the Purolator, a portmanteau of "pure oil later". The Purolator oil filter is still in production today.
This original invention was a bypass filter: most of the oil flowed directly from the oil pan to the engine's working parts, and a smaller proportion of the oil was sent through the filter via a second flow path in parallel with the first.
The oil was thus filtered over time. Modern bypass oil filter systems for diesel engines are becoming popular in consumer applications, but have been in commercial use for some time due to potential reduction in maintenance costs.
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Valves[ edit ] Oil-filter cartridge, internal construction. Most pressurized lubrication systems incorporate an overpressure relief valve to allow oil to bypass the filter if its flow restriction is excessive, to protect the engine from oil starvation. Filter bypass may occur if the filter is clogged or the oil is thickened by cold weather.
The overpressure relief valve is frequently incorporated into the oil filter. Filters mounted such that oil tends to drain from them usually incorporate an anti-drainback valve to hold oil in the filter after the engine or other lubrication system is shut down.
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This is done to avoid a delay in oil pressure buildup once the system is restarted; without an anti-drainback valve, pressurized oil would have to fill the filter before travelling onward to the engine's working parts. This situation can cause premature wear of moving parts due to initial lack of oil. Types of oil filter[ edit ] Mechanical[ edit ] Mechanical designs employ an element made of bulk material such as cotton waste or pleated Filter paper to entrap and sequester suspended contaminants.
As material builds up on or in the filtration medium, oil flow is progressively restricted. This requires periodic replacement of the filter element or the entire filter, if the element is not separately replaceable.
Cartridge and spin-on[ edit ] Replacement oil filter element for a Volvo S40 Early engine oil filters were of cartridge or replaceable element construction, in which a permanent housing contains a replaceable filter element or cartridge. The housing is mounted either directly on the engine or remotely with supply and return pipes connecting it to the engine. In the mids, the spin-on oil filter design was introduced: a self-contained housing and element assembly which was to be unscrewed from its mount, discarded, and replaced with a new one.
This made filter changes more convenient and potentially less messy, and quickly came to be the dominant type of oil filter installed by the world's automakers. Conversion kits were offered for vehicles originally equipped with cartridge-type filters.
American automakers have likewise begun to shift to replaceable-cartridge filters, and retrofit kits to convert from spin-on to cartridge-type filters are offered for popular applications. These variables affect the efficacy, durability, and cost of the filter. An advantage of magnetic filtration is that maintaining the filter simply requires cleaning the particles from the surface of the magnet. Automatic transmissions in vehicles frequently have a magnet in the fluid pan to sequester magnetic particles and prolong the life of the media-type fluid filter.
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Some companies are manufacturing magnets that attach to the outside of an oil filter or magnetic drain plugs -- first invented and offered for cars and motorcycles in the mids  -- to aid in capturing these metallic particles, though there is ongoing debate as to the effectiveness of such devices.
Centrifugal[ edit ] A centrifugal oil cleaner is a rotary sedimentation device using centrifugal force rather than gravity to separate contaminants from the oil, in the same manner as any other centrifuge.
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Pressurized oil enters the center of the housing and passes into a drum rotor free to spin on a bearing and seal. The rotor has two jet nozzles arranged to direct a stream of oil at the inner housing to rotate the drum. The oil then slides to the bottom of the housing wall, leaving particulate oil contaminants stuck to the housing walls.
Oil Filters In The Nuclear Age – The Video
The housing must periodically be cleaned, or the particles will accumulate to such a thickness as to stop the drum rotating. In this condition, unfiltered oil will be recirculated.
High efficiency HE [ edit ] High efficiency oil filters are a type of bypass filter that are claimed to allow extended oil drain intervals.
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